Date: 7/20/20 3:02 pm
From: anneboby <00000038cbe79a41-dmarc-request...>
Subject: Re: [VTBIRD] Hummers, they are out
Thank you Jared. Please let me offer advice to watchers at hummer feeders about who is whom as to age and sex.  The bully ad. males have, as pictured in most field guides a deeply forked black tail, green back, whitish belly, and black throat which at the right angle of light is an iridescent  brilliantly ruby red, giving them their name, as well as attracting their numerous female mates. The plumage of all of the  season's  newly fledged young, M or F, resembles more that of their mother than that of their father.  All new young, M and F,  have white-tipped tail feathers resembling their mother's plumage not their father's black, deeply forked outer tail feathers.
But, one plumage characteristic does distinguish young males from their sisters and mothers.  They have light-green streaking on their throat suggesting a bit of a beard (not really) that differentiates them from the white throats of their sisters and mothers.
I hope this helps feeder watchers to better understand whom they are hosting.  It's always a pleasure to watch these tiny mites,
Bob Yunick
Thanks so much for the information. Until Friday, we’d had one male and two-three females at our two feeders. Suddenly, as of Friday morning 7/18, there were three additional hummers. 


Jared Katz Photography
823 Snipe Ireland Road
Richmond, VT 05477
(802) 343-4102

> On Jul 20, 2020, at 1:00 PM, anneboby <00000038cbe79a41-dmarc-request...> wrote:
> Hello Hummer Lovers - on Fri, 7/17, I banded the first newly fledged imm. female Ruby-throat of the season at my Adirondack banding station at Jenny Lake in Saratoga Co., NY.  Based on 29 years of banding records at this site, this date is 3 days earlier than the previous earliest date of 7/20.  The average earliest date is 8/3, ranging as late as 8/25 in 2013.
> Let me offer some further thoughts on the possibility of double brooding based on Cornell's information that the species can be single or double brooded.  That guidance needs to be put into proper geographical perspective.
> Northward bound male Ruby-throats hit the Gulf Coast last week of  Feb based on many years of records gathered on HumNet.  A few miles inland from that coast the breeding territory of Ruby-throats begins, stretching about 1100 mi. N into southern Canada at about 49 deg. N latitude.  It is quite possible that Ruby-throats breeding in southern U.S. states can be double brooded if they begin breeding in Mar, but that possibility diminishes as one goes northward.
> My Jenny Lake station is at 41deg, 16 min. N latitude at an elevation of 1250-1300 ft.  Records there over 29 years show an average first banding date of adults 5/16, range 5/6-5/24; first banding date of a newly fledged imm. 8/3, range 7/20 (prior to this year)-8/25.  The average last banding date is 9/3, range 8/25-9/23.  In 16 of the 29 years, imm. have been banded into Sep, average last date 9/8 with  dates of 12 of those 16 years occurring 9/1-9/10.
> If an average female were to double brood, she would require 3-5 days to rehab her nest, 2 days to lay 2 eggs, 14 days to incubate and 18-23 days to fledge a second brood, a total of 37-44 days.  Based on the average date of first banding of an imm. of 8/3, a female then attempting a second brood would take until 9/9-9/16 to bring off that brood. This puts her brood out of the nest past the average 9/3 departure date.
> If we consider the case of the mother of the imm. I just banded on 7/17, and apply the same breeding time table to her, she could possibly pull off a second brood by  8/23-8/30 which, again, provides precious little time for her newbies to develop the stamina for their upcoming over 1000-mi migration to Central America.
> At Jenny Lake, I have never seen male courting behavior after Jun.  Lots of territorial conflicts at the feeders, yes.  All in all, I feel double brooding at this latitude/elevation in the Adirondacks is not likely; the same would apply to the Green Mountains of VT.  But, we live in changing times, including climate change and global warming which are affecting avian time tables.  We just need further proof that Ruby-throats double brood in the mountains of the Northeast.
> Bob Yunick
> Jenny Lake and Schenectady, NY
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