Wood-warblers are foraging for food now to feed their nestlings or recently fledged offspring, and they use chip calls to communicate with each other and with the young. In wooded areas, listen for characteristic chip calls by Ovenbirds, Black-and-white Warblers, and Worm-eating Warblers, and do the same in low, wet areas for Yellow Warblers, Common Yellowthroats, and the waterthrushes. The same can be said for other species of warblers that breed in our region. We are hearing one or both parents giving these chip calls as they move through their preferred habitats, and the chips come fairly steadily over extended periods of time. If you can locate adults by zeroing in on their chip calls as the adults move around foraging, you increase the chances of seeing them carrying food - hence confirming breeding. The chips vary in tone, sharpness, and loudness from species to species, and with practice you often can identify the species of warbler before seeing it. All this depends on slowing down your birding, often standing still for two or five or ten minutes.