Date: 4/18/17 10:14 am
From: Louis Bevier <lrbevier...>
Subject: [Maine-birds] Vermilion Flycatcher records
The Hog Island Vermilion Flycatcher is catching a lot of buzz ( <>). The title of that Audubon news article has evolved over the course of the morning, playing how to modify “first." This is the first verifiable record for Maine, but there is a report that has long been regarded as hypothetical (published that way by Vickery et al. 1994, Checklist of Maine Birds) and listed under that category by the Maine Bird Records Committee since 2005. The ME-BRC has never reviewed the report. What is hypothetical? Well, in bird circles it is a plausible report lacking corroboration. Usually these are mere mentions of species without details or sight records lacking evidence that can be independently verified (e.g. photo or audio recording).

The previous Maine report is a sight record with a description that sounds fairly convincing--9 May 1994, an "adult male" on Isle au Haut, Knox Co. Details were published in Maine Bird Notes 7(2): 32-33, 1994. Copies of Maine Bird Notes are available on the ME-BRC website, and the issue the old Vermilion report can be found here: <>

Nearly all vagrant records of this species to the Northeast are fall, and this pattern may have influenced the decision to regard this older record as hypothetical apart from the fact that it was only sight report. A sample of previous records in the Northeast (as of 1992, when I did a compilation of records for Connecticut) are: Pelham, MA, 12 Aug 1959 (AFN 16:13); Blandford, MA, 23 Jul 1961 (AFN 16:13); Barnstable, MA, 7 Oct 1962 (AFN 16:10); Jones Beach, LI., NY, 24 Sep 1987 (AB 42:51).

Including the current record and, tentatively, the Isle au Haut bird, there are three spring records in the Northeast, with the third from Delaware--Burtons Island, near Indian River Inlet, 2 and 5 May 1993, an "adult male” that was photographed (see Hess et al., Birds of Delaware, 2000).

The conundrum:
The migratory Austral breeding populations of Vermilion Flycatcher, nominate P. r. rubinus, would be in fall migration now and headed north to northern South America where they "winter.” Overshoots of Austral migrants is a pattern we have seen for other species. Could spring records involve these populations? These Austral birds have different songs and vocalizations from the North American (mexicanus group) birds but otherwise look very similar. Identification of males in the field or from photographs is unexplored territory. The southern South American birds have long wings, typical of migratory birds in general, and the Hog Island bird shows long primary projection. That said, long wings are a character of the migratory North American birds too. On top of all this, recent genetic work suggests nominate rubinus is distinct and perhaps worthy of species recognition (Carmi et al., 2016, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 102:152-173). If split, we could potentially end up being able to add only a “slash” to the state list (mexicanus/rubinus).

Whether any of the Northeast spring records are of South American origin is unknown. North American (mexicanus group) Vermilion Flycatchers are found as vagrants in spring, but well to our west. The coincident appearance of a Scissor-tailed Flycatcher in Washington Co. now, may suggest that the Hog Island bird is "merely" of Southwest origin.

Regardless, he was a treat to see. Thanks to Juanita and Doug. Here is my eBird list with Doug that includes a short video I was able capture. We were about 1/4 mile away from the bird: <> (direct link to video: <>)

Louis Bevier

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